By Frank J. Dixon
Learn Institute of Scripps medical institution, l. a. Jolla. examine within the box. For investigators. 19 members, 6 U.S.
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Extra info for Advances in Immunology, Vol. 64
Immunol. 151, 1193-1204. , and Townsend, A. (1995). Genes encoded in the major histocompatibility complex affecting the generation of peptides for TAP transport. Eur. /. lmmunol. 25, 554-562. Ciechanover, A. (1994). The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Cell 79, 13-21. , and Goldberg, A. L. (1996). Structure and functions of the 20s and 26s proteasomes. Annu. Rev. , 65, 801-847. Cox, J. , Bennink, J. , and Yewdell, J. W. Presentation of endogenous antigen is not affected by inactivation of E l ubiquitin-activating enzyme in temperaturesensitive cell lines.
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Joining of V to J regions is thus directed toward making functionally useful genes, whereas the biologically futile joining of one V to another V, or a J to a J, is rare. Recombination makes a junction of two coding segments (a coding joint) and in parallel produces a heptamer to heptamer fusion of the signals (a signal joint). Depending on the orientation of the signals, the rearrangement can lead to either a deletion or an inversion of the intervening DNA. In the most common arrays at the antigen receptor loci, the coding joint is retained in the chromosome and a circular DNA molecular containing the signal joint is excised and subsequently lost from the cells.