Advances in Immunology, Vol. 16 by F.J. Dixon, Henry G. Kunkel (Eds.)

By F.J. Dixon, Henry G. Kunkel (Eds.)

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C. KUNKEL Gm~aGmaGmn-Gm4aAm2+ Negro Gm~~GmgGm"-Gm~~Am~+ Caucasian Gmf GmaGmn+Gm4bAm2+ Caucasian GmfaGm~Gmn+Gm4aAm*+ Mongoloid Gm~~Gm*Grn~-Gm~~Am*Mongoloid Most likely these gene complexes evolved through rare, equal, homologous cross-over events. However, other genetic mechanisms such as inversions, deletions, duplications, hybridizations, and gene conversions might be considered. In addition there is also evidence for intragenic recombination in case of the Mongoloid gene Gmfa (see later). Another example of a possible intragenic recombination is the unusual GmfJ gene.

1. Major gene complexes detected in different population groups. Some of these gene complexes differ only by a shift of several genetic markers indicating that they may have arisen by rare reconibinational events. C = Canoasian; M = Mongoloid; N = Negro. As a result many workers have continued to use the lettering system which appeared in the original descriptions of the markers. The major gene complexes that are found in the different population groups are shown in Fig. 1; rarer gene complexes are shown in Fig.

2. Similar normal IgG fractions representing each of these four IgG subclasses can be found in all normal individuals. 3. In each of these subclasses genetic markers have been detected by which the subclass protein can be classified into different types, behaving as if controlled by allelic genes. In single heterozygous individuals eight different allelic genes can occur. Since a single cistron HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULINS 29 can only havc two allelcs in a single given individual, the cight alleles can only be accounted for by at least four different cistrons.

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