Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 36 by L. Marton (Ed.)

By L. Marton (Ed.)

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In Equation (12) we have assumed that the atmosphere is an inviscid fluid, with no external forces other than gravity and that the electron and proton temperatures are equal (these assumptions will be discussed critically later). Parker (1963, 1965) analyzed such an expanding atmosphere for general T ( r )as follows. n may be eliminated from Eq. (12) using Eq. (ll), with the result v(du/dr)(l - C2/v2)= R ( r ) = -r2(d/dr)(C2/r2)- Wza/r2, (13) where T is expressed in terms of the characteristic thermal speed C ( r ) = [2kT(r)/m,]’/2, and W = [GMo/a]”2 is the characteristic escape velocity.

CH consider the effect of various hypothetical reductions of the electron thermal conduction coefficient, together with an enhancement of proton-electron energy exchange or proton thermal conduction. WBS also reduce thermal conduction by including both the spiral interplanetary magnetic field and an additional hypothetical reduction factor. In addition, WBS include heating as predicted for viscosity due to Coulomb collisions. BHB used the unmodified collisional thermal conductivity, but included heating due to dissipation of hydromagnetic waves generated at the sun.

However, divergent opinions have arisen concerning the importance of viscosity for the radial flow far from the sun. It has been variously stated that the inclusion of viscosity strongly reduces the flow velocity near 1 AU, and that as r + co the solar wind velocity increases without bound! Neither assertion accords with physical intuition or with observation. The problem arises with use of the collisional coefficient of viscosity, q nmp uth 1- (0th is the proton thermal speed and A the mean free path for Coulomb collisions), to describe momentum transport in the outer solar wind.

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