By Angela Randels-Thorp, David Liss
Acid-Base and Electrolyte guide for Veterinary Technicians provides a simple to appreciate but entire method of acid-base and electrolyte balance.
- Covers the body structure of fluids and their influence on acid-base and electrolyte balance
- Offers certain info on handling acid-base and electrolyte derangements in disease
- Includes entry to a significant other site with case reports and a number of selection questions
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Additional resources for Acid-base and electrolyte handbook for veterinary technicians
Pseudohyperchloremia may also occur. Depending on laboratory equipment used to measure chloride levels, pseudohypochloremic results may occur in patients with lipemic or hyperproteinemic samples. Machines that utilize titrimetric methods to measure chloride will underestimate chloride values if triglyceride concentrations are >600 mg/dL. These patients are not actually hypochloremic: it is laboratory error. 9% NaCl • Hypertonic saline • Potassium chloride • Magnesium chloride Parenteral nutrition A variety of disease processes may result in a “true” corrected hyperchloremia.
Disorders of sodium and water balance in hospitalized patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 56(2): 151–67. Bohn, A. A. (2012). Laboratory evaluation of electrolytes. In: M. A. Thrall, G. Weiser, R. Allison, & T. Campbell (eds), Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. Oxford: Wiley‐Blackwell: 378–400. Burton, D. R. & Theodore, W. P. (2001). Clinical Physiology of Acid‐Base and Electrolyte Disorders. New York: McGraw‐Hill. DiBartola, S. P. (2012). Disorders of sodium and water: Hypernatremia and hyponatremia.
If the sodium is normal, the difference is approximately 36 mEq/L. If the sodium is normal and the difference is greater than 40 mEq/L, there is a hypochloremic alkalosis, and if less than 32 mEq/L, a hyperchloremic acidosis is present. Hyperchloremia Increases in the chloride levels are often found in patients with metabolic acidosis. There is usually a normal anion gap and a decrease in the plasma bicarbonate concentration. In some cases, patients may have a pseudohyperchloremia due to potassium bromide administration (if electrode modalities are used), hemoglobinemia, lipemia, or bilirubinemia.