Acid-base and electrolyte handbook for veterinary by Angela Randels-Thorp, David Liss

By Angela Randels-Thorp, David Liss

Acid-Base and Electrolyte guide for Veterinary Technicians provides a simple to appreciate but entire method of acid-base and electrolyte balance.

  • Covers the body structure of fluids and their influence on acid-base and electrolyte balance
  • Offers certain info on handling acid-base and electrolyte derangements in disease
  • Includes entry to a significant other site with case reports and a number of selection questions

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Pseudohyperchloremia may also occur. Depending on laboratory equipment used to measure chloride levels, pseudohypochloremic results may occur in patients with lipemic or hyperproteinemic samples. Machines that utilize ­titrimetric methods to measure chloride will underestimate chloride values if triglyceride concentrations are >600 mg/dL. These patients are not actually hypochloremic: it is laboratory error. 9% NaCl • Hypertonic saline • Potassium chloride • Magnesium chloride Parenteral nutrition A variety of disease processes may result in a “true” corrected hyperchloremia.

Disorders of sodium and water balance in hospitalized patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 56(2): 151–67. Bohn, A. A. (2012). Laboratory evaluation of electrolytes. In: M. A. Thrall, G. Weiser, R. Allison, & T. Campbell (eds), Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. Oxford: Wiley‐Blackwell: 378–400. Burton, D. R. & Theodore, W. P. (2001). Clinical Physiology of Acid‐Base and Electrolyte Disorders. New York: McGraw‐Hill. DiBartola, S. P. (2012). Disorders of sodium and water: Hypernatremia and hyponatremia.

If the sodium is normal, the difference is approximately 36 mEq/L. If the sodium is normal and the difference is greater than 40 mEq/L, there is a hypochloremic alkalosis, and if less than 32 mEq/L, a hyperchloremic acidosis is present. Hyperchloremia Increases in the chloride levels are often found in patients with metabolic ­acidosis. There is usually a normal anion gap and a decrease in the plasma bicarbonate concentration. In some cases, patients may have a pseudohyperchloremia due to potassium bromide administration (if electrode modalities are used), hemoglobinemia, lipemia, or bilirubinemia.

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