About Behaviorism by B. F. Skinner

By B. F. Skinner

The fundamental publication in regards to the debatable philosophy referred to as behaviorism, written by way of its prime exponent.

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In this second phase, the minority policy was renamed ‘integration policy’, indicating that the target was no longer groups but individuals. The focus shifted towards integration, putting more emphasis on the fact that ethnic minorities should make use of the opportunities that were offered to them. This led to the formulation of further republican integration policies throughout the 1990s, in which the emphasis was on the individual rather than the group, and on the socio-economic rather than the cultural and religious aspects of integration.

Instead of deriving identities from the productive sphere, social identities are now largely derived from lifestyles and consumption patterns. Leisure has become a realm from which identities are derived. g. Aitchison, 2001; Green and Singleton, 2006; Henderson, 1998; Kelly, 1983). Although people can construct their own identities, context partly determines the degree of freedom to construct one’s own identity. At work and in schools, rules and regulations can restrict Living together in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods 47 Part II this process, while during leisure activities, identities can be negotiated and constructed more consciously.

Culturalism is de rigueur (cf. Rath 1993, 1999; Schinkel, 2007). Integration is seen as a one-way process whereby immigrants have to change, the problem has to be solved by assimilation and the government is seen as the only institution capable of making integration happen (Rath, 2009). Thus, although given different names, the discourses used in Dutch policies on integration are characterized by focusing on the differences between native Dutch citizens and nonnative Dutch citizens, with an emphasis on the incompatibility of Islam with the basic values of Western culture (Shadid, 2006).

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