By Gerald W. Esch, Jacqueline C. Fernández (auth.)
Series Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, college of Sheffield, England the most objective of this sequence might be to demonstrate and to give an explanation for the best way organisms 'make a residing' in nature. on the middle of this - their useful biology - is the best way organisms gather after which utilize assets in metabolism, stream, development, copy, etc. those approaches will shape the elemental framework of the entire books within the sequence. every one booklet will be aware of a selected taxon (species, kinfolk, classification or perhaps phylum) and should compile details at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the crowd. the purpose might be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but in addition to contemplate why they've got come to paintings in that approach. by means of focus on taxa that are renowned, it truly is was hoping that the sequence won't merely illustrate the luck of choice, but in addition convey the restrictions imposed upon it through the physiological, morphological and developmental barriers of the teams. one other very important characteristic of the sequence can be its organismic orientation. each one e-book will emphasize the significance of sensible integration within the day to-day lives and the evolution of organisms. this can be the most important considering, although it can be actual that organisms might be regarded as collections of gene made up our minds features, they however engage with their surroundings as built-in wholes and it's during this context that specific characteristics were subjected to common choice and feature evolved.
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Extra resources for A Functional Biology of Parasitism: Ecological and evolutionary implications
Outside the intestine, plerocercoid. Factors affecting parasite populations 39 Another age-related component of the parasite's life cycle should also be considered. In order to complete the cycle, the plerocercoid must first reach a parenteric site within the definitive host, almost always a sexually mature smallmouth or largemouth bass. This can be accomplished in one of two ways. First, the plerocercoid-infected small fish or fingerling can be eaten by a larger bass. If this happens, the plerocercoid will be digested from the flesh of the intermediate host and then migrate through the gut wall of the bass into the body cavity.
The life-cycle pattern (Fig. 2) of this hemiurid trematode is much more complicated than that of most other digeneans as it has four, rather than three, obligate hosts (Goater, Browne and Esch, 1990). Adults live under the tongue of the green frog, Rana clamitans, throughout temperate areas of North America. Eggs are swallowed and then shed by the frog when it defecates. Eggs must then be eaten by the snail intermediate host, Helisoma anceps. Once inside the snail gut, the eggs hatch and a motile larval stage penetrates the gut wall and migrates to the hepatopancreas where sporocysts develop.
If the parasite survives in the abnormal host and if some sort of tissue migration is a normal feature of its life cycle, then it is likely that it will migrate to the wrong place and use the wrong route. When this happens, tissue damage, pathology, and even host death, are a real possibility. A disease known as sparganosis will occur in humans, for example, if they accidentally ingest copepods carrying procercoids (the second larval stage in its life cycle) of the pseudophyllidean cestode, Spirometra mansonoides.